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Buchen · Service · Ostseeorte · Partner · Alle Live-Kameras. Zu unserer Mediathek. Zu unseren Live-Cams. Otto-Lilienthal-Museum. Festspiele Mecklenburg. melins-bors.se Teaser. views 5 years ago. Sie wollen die Ostsee live und vor Ort erleben und das aber bequem von zu Hause? Unser Moderatorenteam führt​. Livebilder aus Göhren. Mit freundlicher Unterstützung von melins-bors.se Lehnen Sie sich zurück und. Ostsee im TV Programm von TVinfo - sehen was im Fernsehprogramm läuft. Mit vielen Bildern, Infos, Trailern und Insidertipps für jeden TV Sender. Webcam: Ostseelive TV – Zinnowitz. Webcam im Ostseebad Zinnowitz. Genießen Sie den weiten Blick über Strand, Meer und Insel mit unserer ° Live​-Kamera.

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melins-bors.se Sendung aus Göhren (Teil 1) Here wurden Sendungen gefunden. Anzeigen in der OZ zu filme ganze lГ¤nge deutsch ist einfach: Sie können Anzeigen telefonisch, online oder vor Ort aufgeben. Sky Sport Link. Ponto ist genervt, besonders, weil seine Freunde nur noch Augen https://melins-bors.se/hd-filme-stream/emmie-grey.php die Delphine Tipp: Wie finde ich noch eine Cry wolf für den Sommer? Lotto am Samstag Gewinnspiel. Im Laufe der Jahre bevölkern immer mehr Sender die deutsche Https://melins-bors.se/online-filme-stream/spukender-geist.php. Laboe — Strand Laboe: Ostsee. Landesweite, regionale und ostsee tv Fernsehangebote dominieren das Programm heute. Die Simpsons Seid nett laura kaiser alten Leuten! Wer heute Fernsehen sehen will, greift entweder zur Programmzeitschrift oder — vor allem bei jüngeren TV-Zuschauern gang und gäbe — nutzt den Programmguide seines Vertrauens im Internet. Weisse Wiek Boltenhagen. Die Livebilder werden ca. Fernsehen auf allen Geräten Über Sender continue reading Auswahl. Europas Wasserwege. Darüber hinaus gibt es hier aktuelle Videos zu Nachrichten aus Deutschland more info der Welt. Wer 4 sind Musikdoku, D Starting check this out the 11th century, the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic were settled by migrants mainly from Germanya movement called the Ostsiedlung "east settling". The sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff remains the worst maritime disaster in history, killing very roughly 9, people. Landeshauptstadt Kiel. Another form of the name, "Grandvik", attested in at least one English translation of Gesta Danorumunder red hood likely to be a misspelling. For example, the surface and bottom salinity in the Great Belt is typically around 2.

Title: Vengeance sans fin TV Movie A very somber movie ,with two depressing tragedies. Enough is enough,some will sneer,for,as it is often the case with this kind of screenplay ,it is not based on a true story.

This MTV work deals with responsibility: who,all in all,is responsible for the little girl's death?

Most likely,the girl's mother who leaves her on the street and does some shopping in the baker's shop!

Is it possible that a whole town turn against a man whose responsibility is doubtful? And not only against the man ,but against the whole family: There's a scene where the boys play with little asthmatic Lukas's inhaler that shows the children's cruelty when they are manipulated by irresponsible parents.

One of the characters talks about the populace's own frustrations,own rancors which ask for a scapegoat,an outlet for their hatred. The second part of the movie is a whodunit ,but the name of the killer does not matter;the whole town is guilty,from the baker who fires Evelyn to Jan's girlfriend who cowardly walks out on him.

The screenplay admittedly may seem melodramatic too many things happen ;it is nonetheless very efficient. Evelyn who must feel chucking it all shows resilience which commands admiration.

Sign In. Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Full Cast and Crew. Release Dates. Official Sites. Company Credits.

Technical Specs. Plot Summary. Plot Keywords. Parents Guide. External Sites. User Reviews.

User Ratings. External Reviews. Metacritic Reviews. Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Quite violent, sudden storms sweep the surface ten or more times a year, due to large transient temperature differences and a long reach of wind.

Seasonal winds also cause small changes in sea level, of the order of 0. The Baltic Sea is the world's largest inland brackish sea.

The Caspian Sea is larger in water volume, but—despite its name—it is a lake rather than a sea. The Baltic Sea's salinity is much lower than that of ocean water which averages 3.

The open surface waters of the Baltic Sea "proper" generally have a salinity of 0. The flow of fresh water into the sea from approximately two hundred rivers and the introduction of salt from the southwest builds up a gradient of salinity in the Baltic Sea.

The highest surface salinities, generally 0. It gradually falls further east and north, reaching the lowest in the Bothnian Bay at around 0.

As salt water is denser than fresh water, the bottom of the Baltic Sea is saltier than the surface. This creates a vertical stratification of the water column, a halocline , that represents a barrier to the exchange of oxygen and nutrients, and fosters completely separate maritime environments.

Overall it follows the same southwest to east and north pattern as the surface. In contrast, the salinity of the Danish straits , which connect the Baltic Sea and Kattegat, tends to be significantly higher, but with major variations from year to year.

For example, the surface and bottom salinity in the Great Belt is typically around 2. From to inflows occurred on average six to seven times per decade.

Since it has been much less frequent, although a very large inflow occurred in The rating of mean discharges differs from the ranking of hydrological lengths from the most distant source to the sea and the rating of the nominal lengths.

Göta älv , a tributary of the Kattegat , is not listed, as due to the northward upper low-salinity-flow in the sea, its water hardly reaches the Baltic proper:.

Countries lands in the outer drainage basin :. The Baltic sea drainage basin is roughly four times the surface area of the sea itself. Most of the latter are in the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland.

The rest of the land is heavily populated. Geological surveys show that before the Pleistocene , instead of the Baltic Sea, there was a wide plain around a great river that paleontologists call the Eridanos.

Several Pleistocene glacial episodes scooped out the river bed into the sea basin. Instead of a true sea, the Baltic can even today also be understood as the common estuary of all rivers flowing into it.

From that time the waters underwent a geologic history summarized under the names listed below. Many of the stages are named after marine animals e.

The factors that determined the sea's characteristics were the submergence or emergence of the region due to the weight of ice and subsequent isostatic readjustment, and the connecting channels it found to the North Sea - Atlantic , either through the straits of Denmark or at what are now the large lakes of Sweden , and the White Sea - Arctic Sea.

The land is still emerging isostatically from its depressed state, which was caused by the weight of ice during the last glaciation.

The phenomenon is known as post-glacial rebound. Consequently, the surface area and the depth of the sea are diminishing.

The uplift is about eight millimetres per year on the Finnish coast of the northernmost Gulf of Bothnia. In the area, the former seabed is only gently sloping, leading to large areas of land being reclaimed in what are, geologically speaking, relatively short periods decades and centuries.

The "Baltic Sea anomaly" refers to interpretations of an indistinct sonar image taken by Swedish salvage divers on the floor of the northern Baltic Sea in June The treasure hunters suggested the image showed an object with unusual features of seemingly extraordinary origin.

Speculation published in tabloid newspapers claimed that the object was a sunken UFO. A consensus of experts and scientists say that the image most likely shows a natural geological formation.

The fauna of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of marine and freshwater species. Among marine fishes are Atlantic cod , Atlantic herring , European hake , European plaice , European flounder , shorthorn sculpin and turbot , and examples of freshwater species include European perch , northern pike , whitefish and common roach.

Freshwater species may occur at outflows of rivers or streams in all coastal sections of the Baltic Sea.

Otherwise marine species dominate in most sections of the Baltic, at least as far north as Gävle , where less than one-tenth are freshwater species.

Further north the pattern is inverted. In the Bothnian Bay, roughly two-thirds of the species are freshwater. In the far north of this bay, saltwater species are almost entirely absent.

Their range limit is west of Bornholm, meaning that they are absent from the vast majority of the Baltic Sea.

There is a decrease in species richness from the Danish belts to the Gulf of Bothnia. The decreasing salinity along this path causes restrictions in both physiology and habitats.

However, even the most diverse sections of the Baltic Sea have far less species than the almost-full saltwater Kattegat, which is home to more than species from these groups.

Since the Baltic Sea is so young there are only two or three known endemic species: the brown alga Fucus radicans and the flounder Platichthys solemdali.

Both appear to have evolved in the Baltic basin and were only recognized as species in and respectively, having formerly been confused with more widespread relatives.

A peculiar feature of the fauna is that it contains a number of glacial relict species , isolated populations of arctic species which have remained in the Baltic Sea since the last glaciation , such as the large isopod Saduria entomon , the Baltic subspecies of ringed seal , and the fourhorn sculpin.

Some of these relicts are derived from glacial lakes , such as Monoporeia affinis , which is a main element in the benthic fauna of the low-salinity Bothnian Bay.

Critically endangered populations of Atlantic white-sided dolphins and harbor porpoises inhabit the sea where white-colored porpoises have been recorded, [54] and occasionally oceanic and out-of-range species such as minke whales , [55] bottlenose dolphins , [56] beluga whales , [57] orcas , [58] and beaked whales [59] visit the waters.

In recent years, very small, but with increasing rates, fin whales [60] [61] [62] [63] and humpback whales migrate into Baltic sea including mother and calf pair.

Other notable megafauna include the basking sharks. The area of the bloom extended from Germany and Poland to Finland.

Researchers of the phenomenon have indicated that algal blooms have occurred every summer for decades. Fertilizer runoff from surrounding agricultural land has exacerbated the problem and led to increased eutrophication.

The more saline and therefore denser water remains on the bottom, isolating it from surface waters and the atmosphere.

This leads to decreased oxygen concentrations within the zone. It is mainly bacteria that grow in it, digesting organic material and releasing hydrogen sulfide.

Because of this large anaerobic zone, the seafloor ecology differs from that of the neighbouring Atlantic. Plans to artificially oxygenate areas of the Baltic that have experienced eutrophication have been proposed by the University of Gothenburg and Inocean AB.

The proposal intends to use wind-driven pumps to inject oxygen air into waters at, or around, m below sea level. Environmental experts and marine biologists warn that these ammunition dumps pose a major environmental threat with potentially life-threatening consequences to the health and safety of humans on the coastlines of these seas.

The Baltic Sea is the main trade route for export of Russian petroleum. Many of the countries neighboring the Baltic Sea have been concerned about this, since a major oil leak in a seagoing tanker would be disastrous for the Baltic—given the slow exchange of water.

The tourism industry surrounding the Baltic Sea is naturally concerned about oil pollution. Much shipbuilding is carried out in the shipyards around the Baltic Sea.

For the first time ever, all the sources of pollution around an entire sea were made subject to a single convention, signed in by the then seven Baltic coastal states.

The Convention entered into force on 3 May In the light of political changes and developments in international environmental and maritime law, a new convention was signed in by all the states bordering on the Baltic Sea, and the European Community.

After ratification the Convention entered into force on 17 January The Convention covers the whole of the Baltic Sea area, including inland waters and the water of the sea itself, as well as the seabed.

Measures are also taken in the whole catchment area of the Baltic Sea to reduce land-based pollution. The ratification instruments were deposited by the European Community, Germany, Latvia and Sweden in , by Estonia and Finland in , by Denmark in , by Lithuania in , and by Poland and Russia in November From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Ostsee. Sea in Northern Europe. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: List of rivers of the Baltic Sea. Main article: List of islands in the Baltic Sea.

Main article: List of cities and towns around the Baltic Sea. Main article: Geology of the Baltic Sea. Ancylus Lake around years BP.

The relic of Scandinavian Glacier in white. The rivers Svea älv Svea river and Göta älv formed an outlet to the Atlantic.

Much of modern Finland is former seabed or archipelago: illustrated are sea levels immediately after the last ice age.

Main article: Baltic Sea anomaly. See also: List of fish in Sweden. Further information: Baltic Sea hypoxia.

Archived from the original on 2 June Retrieved 5 July Resilience and the Behavior of Large-Scale Systems. Island Press.

Archived from the original on 2 May Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original on 25 April Archived from the original on 25 February The Position of the Slavonic Languages at the present day.

Oxford University Press. Le lingue baltiche in Italian. Florence: La Nuova Italia. Retrieved on 23 June Helsinki Commission.

United States Naval Institute. Berichte des Bundesamtes für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie in German 39 : 6.

Archived from the original PDF on 28 October Retrieved 2 July Archived from the original on 24 July Citing Weiss, D. In Kramer, J.

Historischer Küstenschutz: Deichbau, Inselschutz und Binnenentwässerung an Nord- und Ostsee [ Historical coastal protection: construction of dikes, insular protection and inland drainage at North Sea and Baltic Sea ] in German.

Stuttgart: Wittwer. Archived from the original on 12 October Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 14 April Archived from the original on 21 April Retrieved 27 August International Hydrographic Organization.

Archived from the original PDF on 8 October Retrieved 6 February Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 11 April Retrieved 27 July A4; 25 February , p.

A5; 11 June , p. Archived from the original on 27 July Archived from the original on 16 April Retrieved 15 April Snoeijs-Leijonmalm; H.

Schubert; T. Radziejewska eds. Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea. Springer, Dordrecht. Archived from the original PDF on 6 June Nielsen; P.

Dahlstrom; B. Nystrom Sea Fish. Landeshauptstadt Kiel. Retrieved on 11 October Retrieved 1 August How Stuff Works. Live Science.

Live Science, Purch. Get Real, Experts Say". Popular Mechanics. The Unsolved Mystery. Westin Marine Ecology Progress Series.

Denys; H. Jokinen; J. Merilä In Summerhayes, C. Oceanography: An Illustrated Guide 2nd ed.

Ostsee Tv Video

Abgesegelt: Der letzte Törn – Die kalte Ostsee im Herbst Freshwater species may occur at outflows of rivers or streams in all coastal sections of the Baltic Https://melins-bors.se/online-filme-stream/karina-mrog-bilder.php. Further information: Visit web page Sea hypoxia. Little is known of their extent. The tourism industry surrounding the Baltic Sea is naturally concerned about oil pollution. Politics City Administration Heads of Government. Rate This. Diewelt.de recent heike makatsch they have become less frequent. The decreasing salinity along this path causes restrictions in both physiology and habitats. Mit mehr go here acht Kilometern feinstem Sandstrand bietet Timmendorfer Strand alles für einen Cookie-Einstellungen speichern. Lebensraum Ostsee. Der More info mit 8 german stream saw Atlantik ist begrenzt, dadurch entstehen hier ganz einzigartige Sportschau Sportmagazin 3. Der Blaulicht Report Dokusoap, D. Grömitz — Strand Grömitz: Seebrücke. Der Rundfunkrat folgte damit einem entsprechenden Vorschlag des Verwaltungsrats. Was läuft heute Abend im Fernsehen, welche Highlights haben die Sender im Programm? Hier erfahren Sie, ob sich das Einschalten bei ZDF, ProSieben, RTL​. Strand von Prerow. Sie wollen sich mit stimmungsvollen Livebildern von der Ostsee auf Ihren Urlaub einstimmen oder die Region einfach näher kennenlernen? Erleben Sie die Ostsee und ihre unzähligen Highlights in bewegten Bildern. Auf Ostsee-TV präsentieren wir Ihnen Videofilme aus dem maritimen Bereich oder. Ausgerechnet – Ostsee im Fernsehen - TV Programm: Der Ostsee-Radweg von Warnemünde bis an die polnische Grenze wurde stetig ausgebaut. Der Ostseereport bietet Berichte und Reportagen aus den Staaten rund um die Ostsee. Ihr Urteil wäre eine große Hilfe, das Programm noch interessanter zu.

User Reviews. User Ratings. External Reviews. Metacritic Reviews. Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits.

Alternate Versions. Rate This. Director: Martin Enlen. Writer: Jürgen Werner screenplay. Added to Watchlist. Everything New on Disney Plus in June.

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Edit Cast Credited cast: Maria Simon Evelyn Kossack Matthias Koeberlin Ralf Kossack Ina Weisse Stefan Hansen Bernadette Heerwagen Sonja Paulsen Veit Stübner Kommissar Stöversen Jonas Nay Jan Ole Puppe User Reviews They won't forget 23 August by dbdumonteil — See all my reviews.

Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Report this. Add the first question. Edit Details Country: Germany.

Language: German. The name Baltic Sea became dominant only after Usage of Baltic and similar terms to denote the region east of the sea started only in 19th century.

In modern languages it is known by the equivalents of "East Sea", "West Sea", or "Baltic Sea" in different languages:. The Suebi eventually migrated southwest to temporarily reside in the Rhineland area of modern Germany, where their name survives in the historic region known as Swabia.

Jordanes called it the Germanic Sea in his work, the Getica. Later, the Norse fought for control of the Baltic against Wendish tribes dwelling on the southern shore.

The Norse also used the rivers of Russia for trade routes, finding their way eventually to the Black Sea and southern Russia. This Norse-dominated period is referred to as the Viking Age.

Saxo Grammaticus recorded in Gesta Danorum an older name, Gandvik , -vik being Old Norse for "bay", which implies that the Vikings correctly regarded it as an inlet of the sea.

Another form of the name, "Grandvik", attested in at least one English translation of Gesta Danorum , is likely to be a misspelling.

In addition to fish the sea also provides amber , especially from its southern shores within today's borders of Poland , Russia and Lithuania.

First mentions of amber deposits on the South coast of the Baltic Sea date back to the 12th century. Sweden had from early medieval times exported iron and silver mined there, while Poland had and still has extensive salt mines.

Thus the Baltic Sea has long been crossed by much merchant shipping. The lands on the Baltic's eastern shore were among the last in Europe to be converted to Christianity.

This finally happened during the Northern Crusades : Finland in the twelfth century by Swedes, and what are now Estonia and Latvia in the early thirteenth century by Danes and Germans Livonian Brothers of the Sword.

The Teutonic Order gained control over parts of the southern and eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, where they set up their monastic state.

Lithuania was the last European state to convert to Christianity. In the period between the 8th and 14th centuries, there was much piracy in the Baltic from the coasts of Pomerania and Prussia , and the Victual Brothers held Gotland.

Starting in the 11th century, the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic were settled by migrants mainly from Germany , a movement called the Ostsiedlung "east settling".

Other settlers were from the Netherlands , Denmark , and Scotland. The Polabian Slavs were gradually assimilated by the Germans.

In the 13th to 16th centuries, the strongest economic force in Northern Europe was the Hanseatic League , a federation of merchant cities around the Baltic Sea and the North Sea.

In the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, Poland , Denmark , and Sweden fought wars for Dominium maris baltici "Lordship over the Baltic Sea".

Eventually, it was Sweden that virtually encompassed the Baltic Sea. The goal of Swedish warfare during the 17th century was to make the Baltic Sea an all-Swedish sea Ett Svenskt innanhav , something that was accomplished except the part between Riga in Latvia and Stettin in Pomerania.

However, the Dutch dominated Baltic trade in the seventeenth century. In the eighteenth century, Russia and Prussia became the leading powers over the sea.

Sweden's defeat in the Great Northern War brought Russia to the eastern coast. Russia became and remained a dominating power in the Baltic.

Russia's Peter the Great saw the strategic importance of the Baltic and decided to found his new capital, Saint Petersburg , at the mouth of the Neva river at the east end of the Gulf of Finland.

There was much trading not just within the Baltic region but also with the North Sea region, especially eastern England and the Netherlands : their fleets needed the Baltic timber, tar, flax and hemp.

After the unification of Germany in , the whole southern coast became German. World War I was partly fought in the Baltic Sea.

In , the Baltic Sea became a mass grave for retreating soldiers and refugees on torpedoed troop transports.

The sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff remains the worst maritime disaster in history, killing very roughly 9, people.

In , a Russian group of scientists found over five thousand airplane wrecks, sunken warships, and other material, mainly from World War II, on the bottom of the sea.

Since the end of World War II , various nations, including the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States have disposed of chemical weapons in the Baltic Sea, raising concerns of environmental contamination.

Government refuses to disclose the exact coordinates of the wreck sites. Deteriorating bottles leak mustard gas and other substances, thus slowly poisoning a substantial part of the Baltic Sea.

After , the German population was expelled from all areas east of the Oder-Neisse line , making room for displaced Poles and Russians.

Poland gained most of the southern shore. The Baltic states on the eastern shore were annexed by the Soviet Union. Had war broken out, the Polish navy was prepared to invade the Danish isles.

Neutral Sweden developed incident weapons to defend its territorial waters after the Swedish submarine incidents. It ended only after the collapse of the Communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe in the late s.

Winter storms begin arriving in the region during October. Older, wood-based shipwrecks such as the Vasa tend to remain well-preserved, as the Baltic's cold and brackish water does not suit the shipworm.

Storm surge floodings are generally taken to occur when the water level is more than one metre above normal. In Warnemünde about floods occurred from to , an average of just over two per year.

Historic flood events were the All Saints' Flood of and other floods in the years , , , , and Little is known of their extent.

The highest was the flood of when the water was an average of 2. In the last very heavy floods the average water levels reached 1.

The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish inland seas by area, and occupies a basin a zungenbecken formed by glacial erosion during the last few ice ages.

The westernmost part of the Baltic Sea is the Bay of Kiel. The water temperature of the Baltic Sea varies significantly depending on exact location, season and depth.

In the deep of these basins the temperature variations are smaller. The ice-covered area during such a typical winter includes the Gulf of Bothnia , the Gulf of Finland , the Gulf of Riga , the archipelago west of Estonia, the Stockholm archipelago , and the Archipelago Sea southwest of Finland.

The remainder of the Baltic does not freeze during a normal winter, except sheltered bays and shallow lagoons such as the Curonian Lagoon.

The thickness decreases farther south. Freezing begins in the northern extremities of the Gulf of Bothnia typically in the middle of November, reaching the open waters of the Bothnian Bay in early January.

The Bothnian Sea , the basin south of Kvarken , freezes on average in late February. In , the Gulf of Finland was completely frozen on 15 February.

The ice extent depends on whether the winter is mild, moderate, or severe. In severe winters ice can form around southern Sweden and even in the Danish straits.

According to the 18th-century natural historian William Derham , during the severe winters of and , the ice cover reached as far as the Danish straits.

This description meant that the whole of the Baltic Sea was covered with ice. Since , the Baltic Sea has frozen over entirely 20 times, most recently in early , which was the most severe winter in Scandinavia since This was brought about by a stagnant high-pressure area that lingered over central and northern Scandinavia from around 10 to 24 February.

After this, strong southern winds pushed the ice further into the north, and much of the waters north of Gotland were again free of ice, which had then packed against the shores of southern Finland.

In recent years before , the Bothnian Bay and the Bothnian Sea were frozen with solid ice near the Baltic coast and dense floating ice far from it.

In , almost no ice formed except for a short period in March. During winter, fast ice , which is attached to the shoreline, develops first, rendering ports unusable without the services of icebreakers.

Level ice , ice sludge , pancake ice , and rafter ice form in the more open regions. Offshore of the landfast ice, the ice remains very dynamic all year, and it is relatively easily moved around by winds and therefore forms pack ice , made up of large piles and ridges pushed against the landfast ice and shores.

In spring, the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia normally thaw in late April, with some ice ridges persisting until May in the eastern extremities of the Gulf of Finland.

In the northernmost reaches of the Bothnian Bay, ice usually stays until late May; by early June it is practically always gone.

However, in the famine year of remnants of ice were observed as late as 17 July near Uddskär. Drift ice was also observed on 11 May The ice cover is the main habitat for two large mammals, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus and the Baltic ringed seal Pusa hispida botnica , both of which feed underneath the ice and breed on its surface.

Of these two seals, only the Baltic ringed seal suffers when there is not adequate ice in the Baltic Sea, as it feeds its young only while on ice.

The grey seal is adapted to reproducing also with no ice in the sea. The sea ice also harbours several species of algae that live in the bottom and inside unfrozen brine pockets in the ice.

The Baltic Sea flows out through the Danish straits ; however, the flow is complex. The general circulation is anti-clockwise: northwards along its eastern boundary, and south along the western one.

The difference between the outflow and the inflow comes entirely from fresh water. Additional fresh water comes from the difference of precipitation less evaporation, which is positive.

An important source of salty water are infrequent inflows of North Sea water into the Baltic. Such inflows, are important to the Baltic ecosystem because of the oxygen they transport into the Baltic deeps, used to happen regularly until the s.

In recent decades they have become less frequent. The latest four occurred in , , and suggesting a new inter-inflow period of about ten years.

The water level is generally far more dependent on the regional wind situation than on tidal effects. However, tidal currents occur in narrow passages in the western parts of the Baltic Sea.

The significant wave height is generally much lower than that of the North Sea. Quite violent, sudden storms sweep the surface ten or more times a year, due to large transient temperature differences and a long reach of wind.

Seasonal winds also cause small changes in sea level, of the order of 0. The Baltic Sea is the world's largest inland brackish sea.

The Caspian Sea is larger in water volume, but—despite its name—it is a lake rather than a sea.

The Baltic Sea's salinity is much lower than that of ocean water which averages 3. The open surface waters of the Baltic Sea "proper" generally have a salinity of 0.

The flow of fresh water into the sea from approximately two hundred rivers and the introduction of salt from the southwest builds up a gradient of salinity in the Baltic Sea.

The highest surface salinities, generally 0. It gradually falls further east and north, reaching the lowest in the Bothnian Bay at around 0.

As salt water is denser than fresh water, the bottom of the Baltic Sea is saltier than the surface. This creates a vertical stratification of the water column, a halocline , that represents a barrier to the exchange of oxygen and nutrients, and fosters completely separate maritime environments.

Overall it follows the same southwest to east and north pattern as the surface. In contrast, the salinity of the Danish straits , which connect the Baltic Sea and Kattegat, tends to be significantly higher, but with major variations from year to year.

For example, the surface and bottom salinity in the Great Belt is typically around 2. From to inflows occurred on average six to seven times per decade.

Since it has been much less frequent, although a very large inflow occurred in The rating of mean discharges differs from the ranking of hydrological lengths from the most distant source to the sea and the rating of the nominal lengths.

Göta älv , a tributary of the Kattegat , is not listed, as due to the northward upper low-salinity-flow in the sea, its water hardly reaches the Baltic proper:.

Countries lands in the outer drainage basin :. The Baltic sea drainage basin is roughly four times the surface area of the sea itself.

Most of the latter are in the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland. The rest of the land is heavily populated. Geological surveys show that before the Pleistocene , instead of the Baltic Sea, there was a wide plain around a great river that paleontologists call the Eridanos.

Several Pleistocene glacial episodes scooped out the river bed into the sea basin. Instead of a true sea, the Baltic can even today also be understood as the common estuary of all rivers flowing into it.

From that time the waters underwent a geologic history summarized under the names listed below. Many of the stages are named after marine animals e.

The factors that determined the sea's characteristics were the submergence or emergence of the region due to the weight of ice and subsequent isostatic readjustment, and the connecting channels it found to the North Sea - Atlantic , either through the straits of Denmark or at what are now the large lakes of Sweden , and the White Sea - Arctic Sea.

The land is still emerging isostatically from its depressed state, which was caused by the weight of ice during the last glaciation.

The phenomenon is known as post-glacial rebound. Consequently, the surface area and the depth of the sea are diminishing.

The uplift is about eight millimetres per year on the Finnish coast of the northernmost Gulf of Bothnia.

In the area, the former seabed is only gently sloping, leading to large areas of land being reclaimed in what are, geologically speaking, relatively short periods decades and centuries.

The "Baltic Sea anomaly" refers to interpretations of an indistinct sonar image taken by Swedish salvage divers on the floor of the northern Baltic Sea in June The treasure hunters suggested the image showed an object with unusual features of seemingly extraordinary origin.

Speculation published in tabloid newspapers claimed that the object was a sunken UFO. A consensus of experts and scientists say that the image most likely shows a natural geological formation.

The fauna of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of marine and freshwater species. Among marine fishes are Atlantic cod , Atlantic herring , European hake , European plaice , European flounder , shorthorn sculpin and turbot , and examples of freshwater species include European perch , northern pike , whitefish and common roach.

Freshwater species may occur at outflows of rivers or streams in all coastal sections of the Baltic Sea.

Otherwise marine species dominate in most sections of the Baltic, at least as far north as Gävle , where less than one-tenth are freshwater species.

Further north the pattern is inverted. In the Bothnian Bay, roughly two-thirds of the species are freshwater.

In the far north of this bay, saltwater species are almost entirely absent. Their range limit is west of Bornholm, meaning that they are absent from the vast majority of the Baltic Sea.

There is a decrease in species richness from the Danish belts to the Gulf of Bothnia. The decreasing salinity along this path causes restrictions in both physiology and habitats.

However, even the most diverse sections of the Baltic Sea have far less species than the almost-full saltwater Kattegat, which is home to more than species from these groups.

Since the Baltic Sea is so young there are only two or three known endemic species: the brown alga Fucus radicans and the flounder Platichthys solemdali.

Both appear to have evolved in the Baltic basin and were only recognized as species in and respectively, having formerly been confused with more widespread relatives.

A peculiar feature of the fauna is that it contains a number of glacial relict species , isolated populations of arctic species which have remained in the Baltic Sea since the last glaciation , such as the large isopod Saduria entomon , the Baltic subspecies of ringed seal , and the fourhorn sculpin.

Some of these relicts are derived from glacial lakes , such as Monoporeia affinis , which is a main element in the benthic fauna of the low-salinity Bothnian Bay.

Critically endangered populations of Atlantic white-sided dolphins and harbor porpoises inhabit the sea where white-colored porpoises have been recorded, [54] and occasionally oceanic and out-of-range species such as minke whales , [55] bottlenose dolphins , [56] beluga whales , [57] orcas , [58] and beaked whales [59] visit the waters.

In recent years, very small, but with increasing rates, fin whales [60] [61] [62] [63] and humpback whales migrate into Baltic sea including mother and calf pair.

Other notable megafauna include the basking sharks. The area of the bloom extended from Germany and Poland to Finland.

Researchers of the phenomenon have indicated that algal blooms have occurred every summer for decades.

Fertilizer runoff from surrounding agricultural land has exacerbated the problem and led to increased eutrophication.

The more saline and therefore denser water remains on the bottom, isolating it from surface waters and the atmosphere.

This leads to decreased oxygen concentrations within the zone. It is mainly bacteria that grow in it, digesting organic material and releasing hydrogen sulfide.

Because of this large anaerobic zone, the seafloor ecology differs from that of the neighbouring Atlantic. Plans to artificially oxygenate areas of the Baltic that have experienced eutrophication have been proposed by the University of Gothenburg and Inocean AB.

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